A passive house is a building in which comfortable interior climate can be maintained without active heating and cooling systems. The house heats and cools itself, hence the term "passive".
These are eco homes with highest energy standards.
A passive house has these features -
A Passive house is a comprehensive system. The term "Passive" describes the system's underlying receptivity and retention capacity. Working with natural resources, free solar energy is captured and applied efficiently, instead of relying predominantly on active systems to bring a building close to zero energy.
It is essential that the energy consumption is reduced to the maximum extent possible. If the energy consumed is less than a quarter of current consumption levels, the savings from conserved energy are enough to pay for the extra construction costs.
Normally, passive houses need about 80% less heating energy than conventional houses. The annual energy consumption for space heating does not exceed 15 kWh. The minimal heat requirement is fulfilled by heating the supply air in the fresh air ventilation system.
And the energy is supplied by renewable energy sources using non-mechanical methods, thereby optimizing natural resources.
These houses have a very low energy demand for maintaining interior comfort even in the winter season. The heating demand is so low that the environmental impact is negligible even if fossil fuels such as oil, gas or coal are used as heating sources.
The principle behind a passive house is based on the concept of reducing investment through energy efficient homes design. By dramatically increasing the energy efficiency of a building the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can be radically simplified on reaching a certain level of efficiency.
The use of optimal daylight plays an integral role in passive energy systems. This involves the positioning and location of a building to allow and make use of the sun's rays throughout the whole year. By using the suns rays, thermal mass is stored into the building materials such as concrete and can generate enough heat for a room.
Extraordinary reductions in energy use and carbon emissions are made possible by the using energy efficient windows with high performance triple-glazing, super-insulation, an airtight building shell, limitation of thermal bridging and balanced energy recovery ventilation.
Energy losses are minimized. Any remaining heat demand is provided by an extremely small source. Avoidance of heat gain through shading and window orientation also helps to limit any cooling load, which is similarly minimized.
These guidelines should be considered while designing:
It is a very well-insulated, virtually air-tight building that is primarily heated by passive solar gain and by internal gains from people, electrical equipment, etc.
An energy recovery ventilator provides a constant, balanced fresh air supply. The result is a system that not only saves up to 90% of space heating costs but also provides great indoor air quality.
Green Roof is used sometimes in passive houses. It is a partially or completely covered roof with plants or other vegetation. The covered roof creates insulation that helps regulate the outside temperature and controls how much goes in the building. It also retains water providing a water recycling system and provides sound proofing, which is ideal for noisy areas.
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